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Hylkylöytö Sophia Maria Hylkylöytö Sophia Maria

Pohjois-Pohjanmaan museon perusnäyttelyssä on esillä
laivahylky Sophia Mariasta löydettyä esineistöä. Kuvassa laivahylyn pienoismalli.

pienoismalli Sophia Maria

Sophia Maria rakennettiin Jouressa Hollannissa vuonna 1840. Tyypiltään Sophia Maria oli koffi ja se oli takiloitu kuunariksi. Koffi on laivatyyppinä vanha hollantilainen rannikkoalus, jollaisia käytettiin jo 1600-luvulla. Sophia Maria oli rakennettu tammesta. Rungon pituus oli 27,5 metriä ja leveys 6,2 metriä.

Kesäkuun viimeisenä päivänä vuonna 1859 alus lähti Hullista, Englannista, kohti Oulua. Sophia Maria ei ollut lastissa, vaan se oli tulossa hakemaan lastia Bergbomin kauppahuoneelta.

Aluksen kapteenina oli 27-vuotias Jane van Slooten ja hänellä oli kuuden hengen miehistö. Sophia Maria joutui myrskyyn Pohjanlahdella ja ajoi karille Hailuodon pohjoispuolella. Alus upposi nopeasti 19.7.1859. Miehistö pelastui mutta laivasta ei ehditty pelastaa juuri mitään.

 


Meriarkeologia
 
Meriarkeologia tutkii alusten hylkyjä, meren ja yleensä veden käyttöön liittyviä rakennelmia sekä veden alle jääneitä asuinpaikkoja ja veteen liittyviä uhripaikkoja. Suomessa hylyt ovat yleisimpiä tutkimuskohteita.

Pohjois-Pohjanmaan museon hylkytutkimukset alkoivat vuonna 1976 yhteistyössä urheilusukellusseura Oulun Vesimiehet ry:n kanssa. Tärkein tutkimuskohde on ollut Sophia Maria, jota on tutkittu vuosina 1977-1985. Muita tutkimuskohteita ovat olleet Fransman eli vuonna 1864 uponnut kuunari Deux Celina  sekä Laitakarin malmihylky.

Underwater archaeology

Underwater archaeology studies all underwater cultural heritage, such as, for example, shipwrecks, submerged harbor structures, settlements and sacrificial sites. In Finland, shipwrecks are the most common subject of study.

Systematic shipwreck studies carried out by the Northern Ostrobothnia Museum began in 1976 in collaboration with diving club Oulun Vesimiehet ry. The most important subject of study is Sophia Maria, a Dutch vessel that sank in 1859 and which has been studied between 1977 and 1985. Other subjects are a schooner called Deux Celina, also known as the “Fransman,” which sank in 1864, and a sailing vessel that was carrying iron ore at the time it sank, resting off the coast of Laitakari island.

Sophia Maria

Sophia Maria was built in Joure in the Netherlands in 1840. It was originally called Newa. In 1857, the ship was sold to shipping company Zeilmaker & Co in Harlingen and re-christened as Sophia Maria.

The vessel departed from Harlingen in March, 1859, towards England. Captaining the ship was a 27-year-old Jane van Slooten, and it had a crew of six. On the last day of June, Sophia Maria departed from Hull for Oulu. The vessel was coming to pick up cargo from Bergbom’s warehouse. Sophia Maria was caught in a storm in the Gulf of Bothnia and ran aground north of Hailuoto island and sank quickly on July 19, 1859. The crew survived, but there was time to rescue only very few items from the ship.

Sophia Maria had no cargo when it sank. The recovered items are everyday objects found on ships and have given insight into what life was like on a sailing vessel in the 1850s.

Sophia Maria is a koff, a historical type of sailing vessel used for coastal shipping off the Netherlands already in the 1600s and 1700s and which remained in use long into the 19th century. Sophia Maria is rigged as a schooner, built from oak, and measures 27.5 meters (90.2 ft) in length and 6.2 meters (20.3 ft) in beam.

The stern of the ship is damaged, and very little remains of the main deck there. Below deck, towards the stern, an aft cabin and storage area were situated. A deckhouse was located in midship. Its walls have deteriorated, but their remains have suggested the deckhouse was 7.5 meters (24.6 ft) in length and 4 meters (13.1 ft) in width. The ship’s kitchen was located in the deckhouse, as were also the crew quarters and a storage area. The front of the ship is intact from the opening of the cargo hold to the bow. Almost all of the recovered items have been found near the deckhouse and towards the stern of the ship.

Translation: Miika Rantonen